Black Fly Suppression Program: Black Fly Biology and Life History. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Environmental Protection.
Crans, Wayne, Ph.D., ed. Black Flies and their Biology. Rutgers Cooperative Extension New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.
Hill, Catherine A., et al. Public Health: Black Flies: Biology and Public Health Risk. Purdue University, Perdue Extension, Department of Entomology.
Lyon, William F. The Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Black Flies.Ohio State University.
Robinson, James V. Black Flies or Buffalo Gnats (Family Simuliidae). Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System.
Lyon, William F. The Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: Midges and Crane Flies. Ohio State University.
Pest Control Bulletin No. 24: Non-Biting Midges. Garden Grove, CA: Orange County Vector Control District.
Wonderful Wacky Water Critters: Midge or Bloodworm. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Education for Kids!
Department of Medical Entomology at ICPMR Westmead Hospital. Biting Midges (Sandflies). University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Australia.
Featherstone, Alan Watson. Caledonia Forest Species Profiles: Highland biting midge. Forres, Scotland: Trees for Life.
North Carolina Integrated Pest Management. Biting Midges. North Carolina State University.
Schalau, Jeff. Backyard Gardener: Coping with No-See-Ums. Prescott, AZ: Arizona Cooperative Extension.
Protect your family, pets and guests from disease-carrying mosquitoes with a Mosquito Magnet® trap - the leading long-term,
scientifically proven mosquito control solution